How is squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder staged?

Updated: Jun 11, 2019
  • Author: Muhammad T Idrees, MD; Chief Editor: Liang Cheng, MD  more...
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Like urothelial carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder is staged using the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) / tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) system. [66] The tumor spreads by direct extension to the adjacent organs, as well as by lymphovascular invasion. It has been reported that squamous cell carcinoma has less tendency than urothelial carcinoma for nodal and vascular distant metastases. [9, 67]

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