How are translocation-associated renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) staged?

Updated: May 17, 2017
  • Author: Angela J Wu, MD; Chief Editor: Liang Cheng, MD  more...
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The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging system is applied to translocation-associated RCCs. [24] In general, Xp11.2 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) presents at a higher stage than does conventional RCC.

A study summarizing 75 cases in the literature found that 65% of patients with non–translocation-associated RCC presented with low-stage tumors (stage I and II), whereas 65% of patients with Xp11.2 translocation-associated RCC presented with high-stage tumors (stage III and IV). [5] Other research found that 48-49% of patients with Xp11.2 RCCs presented with higher-stage disease (pT3 or pT4). [1]

In our experience, 66% of patients with Xp11.2 RCC present at an advanced stage. [3] The reported percentage of patients with Xp11.2-associated RCCs presenting with regional lymph node involvement or metastases is also high but is widely variable (24.8-85%). [1, 3, 4, 5] Patients with tumors bearing t(X;17)(p11.2;q35) are even more likely to present with lymph node involvement (reported frequency, 50%). [1] Common metastatic sites for these tumors include lung, liver, and brain. [1, 3, 5]

Although the stages for all of the reported cases of t(6;11)-associated RCCs are not known, the majority of patients have presented with disease of relatively low TNM stage (pT1 or pT2). [1, 11, 25]

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