Which disorders are associated with sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

Updated: Nov 30, 2018
  • Author: Bharat K Kantharia, MD, FRCP, FAHA, FACC, FESC, FHRS; Chief Editor: Mikhael F El-Chami, MD  more...
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Other disorders that can cause SND include hypothyroidism, hypothermia, hypoxia, and muscular dystrophies. Some infections (eg, leptospirosis, trichinosis, Salmonella typhi infection) are associated with relative sinus bradycardia; however, these usually do not result in permanent SND. [17]  

In addition, SND is seen in children with congenital and acquired heart disease, particularly after corrective surgery. The cause of SND in these children is likely related to the underlying structural heart disease and surgical trauma to the SN and/or SN artery.

Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is an X-linked muscle disorder associated with SND and AV conduction defects. If AV conduction defects are present, sudden cardiac death may result unless the condition is treated with permanent pacing. Males and females may be affected with equal frequency.

Sinus venosus atrial septal defect (ASD)Ebstein anomaly, and heterotaxy syndromes, particularly left atrial isomerism, can also lead to SND.

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