Which medications in the drug class Antiplatelet Agents are used in the treatment of Myocardial Infarction?

Updated: May 07, 2019
  • Author: A Maziar Zafari, MD, PhD, FACC, FAHA; Chief Editor: Eric H Yang, MD  more...
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Answer

Antiplatelet Agents

Antiplatelet agents have a strong mortality benefit. There is an increased risk of bleeding in cases of emergency coronary artery bypass graft (CABG).

Aspirin (Ascriptin, Bayer Aspirin, Aspirtab, Ecotrin, Durlaza)

Early administration of aspirin in patients with acute myocardial infarction has been shown to reduce cardiac mortality rate by 23% in the first month.

Clopidogrel (Plavix)

Clopidogrel selectively inhibits adenosine diphosphate (ADP) binding to platelet receptors and subsequent ADP-mediated activation of glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation.

Clopidogrel may have a positive influence on several hemorrhagic parameters and may exert protection against atherosclerosis, not only through inhibition of platelet function but also through changes in the hemorrhagic profile.

This agent has been shown to decrease cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ie, unstable angina, non-ST elevation MI [NSTEMI], or ST-elevation MI [STEMI]).

Ticagrelor (Brilinta)

Ticagrelor and its major metabolite reversibly interact with the platelet P2Y12 ADP-receptor to prevent signal transduction and platelet activation. This agent is indicated to reduce the rate of thrombotic cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS)—that is, unstable angina, non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI), or ST-elevation MI (STEMI). Ticagrelor also reduces the rate of stent thrombosis in patients who have undergone stent placement for treatment of ACS, and it is indicated in patients with a history of MI more than 1 year previously. Patients can be transitioned from clopidogrel to ticagrelor without interruption of antiplatelet effect.

Prasugrel (Effient)

Prasugrel is a prodrug, a thienopyridine that inhibits platelet activation and aggregation through irreversible binding of active metabolite to adenosine phosphate (ADP) platelet receptors (specifically, P2Y12 receptor)

It is indicated for reduction of thrombotic cardiovascular events (including stent thrombosis) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) managed by means of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) who have either (a) unstable angina or non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI) or (b) ST-elevation MI (STEMI) when managed with primary or delayed PCI.

The use of prasugrel is not recommended for patients with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).

Vorapaxar (Zontivity)

Vorapaxar reversibly inhibits protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) which is expressed on platelets, but its long half-life makes it effectively irreversible. It is indicated to reduce thrombotic cardiovascular events in patients with a history of MI or with peripheral arterial disease. It is not used as monotherapy, but added to aspirin and/or clopidogrel.


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