What is the role of patient history in diagnosing myocardial infarction (MI, heart attack), and what are the typical presenting symptoms?

Updated: May 07, 2019
  • Author: A Maziar Zafari, MD, PhD, FACC, FAHA; Chief Editor: Eric H Yang, MD  more...
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Answer

The patient’s history is critical in diagnosing myocardial infarction (MI) and sometimes may provide the only clues that lead to the diagnosis in the initial phases of the patient presentation.

Patients with typical acute MI usually present with chest pain and may have prodromal symptoms of fatigue, chest discomfort, or malaise in the days preceding the event; alternatively, typical ST-elevation MI (STEMI) may occur suddenly without warning.

The typical chest pain of acute MI usually is intense and unremitting for 30-60 minutes. It is retrosternal and often radiates up to the neck, shoulder, and jaws, and down to the left arm. The chest pain is usually described as a substernal pressure sensation that is also perceived as squeezing, aching, burning, or even sharp. In some patients, the symptom is epigastric, with a feeling of indigestion or of fullness and gas.

In some cases, patients do not recognize the chest pain, have an unusually high pain threshold, or have a disorder that impairs pain perception and results in a defective anginal warning system (eg, diabetes mellitus). In addition, some patients may have an altered mental status caused by medications or impaired cerebral perfusion. Elderly patients with preexisting altered mental status or dementia may have no recollection of recent symptoms and may have no complaints whatsoever.


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