What is the Killip classification system and how is it used in acute myocardial infarction (MI, heart attack)?

Updated: May 07, 2019
  • Author: A Maziar Zafari, MD, PhD, FACC, FAHA; Chief Editor: Eric H Yang, MD  more...
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The Killip classification is widely used in patients presenting with acute MI for the purpose of risk stratification, as follows [42] :

  • Killip class I includes individuals with no clinical signs of heart failure
  • Killip class II includes individuals with rales or crackles in the lungs, an S 3 gallop, and elevated jugular venous pressure
  • Killip class III describes individuals with frank acute pulmonary edema
  • Killip class IV describes individuals in cardiogenic shock or hypotension (measured as systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg), and evidence of low cardiac output (oliguria, cyanosis, or impaired mental status).

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