What are the nonmodifiable risk factors and the modifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis?

Updated: May 07, 2019
  • Author: A Maziar Zafari, MD, PhD, FACC, FAHA; Chief Editor: Eric H Yang, MD  more...
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Nonmodifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis include the following:

  • Age

  • Sex

  • Family history of premature coronary heart disease

  • Male-pattern baldness

Modifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis include the following [22] :

  • Smoking or other tobacco use

  • Hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, including inherited lipoprotein disorders

  • Dyslipidemia

  • Diabetes mellitus

  • Hypertension

  • Obesity (abdominal obesity)

  • Psychosocial stress

  • Sedentary lifestyle and/or lack of exercise

  • Reduced consumption of fruits and vegetables

  • Poor oral hygiene

  • Type A personality

  • Elevated homocysteine levels

  • Presence of peripheral vascular disease

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