What is the morbidity and mortality of mitral stenosis (MS)?

Updated: Feb 02, 2018
  • Author: Claudia Dima, MD, FACC; Chief Editor: Terrence X O'Brien, MD, MS, FACC  more...
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Answer

Mitral stenosis is a progressive disease consisting of a slow, stable course in the early years followed by an accelerated course later in life. Typically, there is a latent period of 20-40 years from the occurrence of rheumatic fever to the onset of symptoms. Once symptoms develop, it is almost a decade before they become disabling. In some geographic areas, mitral stenosis progresses more rapidly, presumably due to either a more severe rheumatic insult or repeated episodes of rheumatic carditis due to new streptococcal infections, which results in severe symptomatic mitral stenosis in the late teens and early 20s.

In the asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patient, survival is greater than 80% at 10 years. When limiting symptoms occur, 10-year survival is less than 15% in the patient with untreated mitral stenosis. When severe pulmonary hypertension develops, mean survival is less than 3 years. Most (60%) patients with severe untreated mitral stenosis die of progressive pulmonary or systemic congestion, but others may suffer systemic embolism (20-30%), pulmonary embolism (10%), or infection (1-5%)


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