Which medications in the drug class HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis?

Updated: Apr 09, 2021
  • Author: Sandy N Shah, DO, MBA, FACC, FACP, FACOI; Chief Editor: Yasmine S Ali, MD, MSCI, FACC, FACP  more...
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Answer

HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors

These agents lower LDL-C levels by reducing the production of mevalonic acid from HMG-CoA and by stimulating LDL catabolism. They also lower triglyceride levels and raise serum HDL-C levels, and they have a low incidence of adverse effects, the most common being hepatotoxicity and myopathy. Aspirin and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors may reduce plaque inflammation. [96]

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors include the following:

- Atorvastatin (Lipitor)

- Pravastatin (Pravachol) [113, 96, 114]

- Simvastatin (Zocor) [115, 116]

- Rosuvastatin (Crestor)

- Pitavastatin (Livalo)

- Lovastatin (Mevacor, Altocor) [117]

- Fluvastatin (Lescol)

Atorvastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin, and rosuvastatin competitively inhibit HMG-CoA, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis. One study suggests that the maximal doses of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin resulted in significant regression of coronary atherosclerosis. Although rosuvastatin resulted in lower LDL cholesterol levels and higher HDL cholesterol levels, a similar degree of regression of percent atheroma value (PAV) was observed in the two groups. [118] Before initiating therapy, place patients on a cholesterol-lowering diet for 3-6 months, and continue diet indefinitely. Holdaas et al suggest the use of rosuvastatin for patients with diabetes mellitus because it may better reduce the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiac events.

Pitavastatin is indicated for primary or mixed hyperlipidemia. Lovastatin is an adjunct to dietary therapy in reducing serum cholesterol; immediate-release (Mevacor) and extended-release (Altocor) versions are available. Fluvastatin is also used as an adjunct to dietary therapy in decreasing cholesterol levels.

Atorvastatin (Lipitor)

Competitively inhibits HMG-CoA, which catalyzes rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis. Before initiating therapy, place patients on cholesterol-lowering diet for 3-6 mo, and continue diet indefinitely.

Pravastatin (Pravachol)

Competitively inhibits HMG-CoA, which catalyzes rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis. Before initiating therapy, place patients on cholesterol-lowering diet for 3-6 mo, and continue diet indefinitely.

Simvastatin (Zocor)

Competitively inhibits HMG-CoA, which catalyzes rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis. Before initiating therapy, place patients on cholesterol-lowering diet for 3-6 mo, and continue diet indefinitely.

Rosuvastatin (Crestor)

Competitively inhibits HMG-CoA, which catalyzes rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis. Before initiating therapy, place patients on cholesterol-lowering diet for 3-6 mo, and continue diet indefinitely.

Pitavastatin (Livalo)

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) indicated for primary or mixed hyperlipidemia. In clinical trials, 2 mg/d reduced total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol similar to atorvastatin 10 mg/d and simvastatin 20 mg/d.

Lovastatin (Mevacor, Altocor)

Adjunct to dietary therapy in reducing serum cholesterol. Immediate-release (Mevacor) and extended-release (Altocor) are available.

Fluvastatin (Lescol)

Used as an adjunct to dietary therapy in decreasing cholesterol levels.


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