Which medications in the drug class ACE Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis?

Updated: Apr 09, 2021
  • Author: Sandy N Shah, DO, MBA, FACC, FACP, FACOI; Chief Editor: Yasmine S Ali, MD, MSCI, FACC, FACP  more...
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Answer

ACE Inhibitors

Hypertension and atherosclerosis may be intimately linked through their effects on vascular endothelial dysfunction, which are mediated by the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Angiotensin II (A-II), a potent vasoconstrictor and the principal active peptide of the RAS, can produce structural changes in the vessel wall associated with atherosclerosis. The ACE inhibitors ramipril (Altace) and quinapril (Accupril) prevent conversion of angiotensin I (A-I) to A-II, resulting in increased levels of plasma renin and a reduction in aldosterone secretion. Examples of other commonly used ACE inhibitors are captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), and lisinopril (Zestril).

Ramipril (Altace)

Prevents conversion of A-I to A-II, a potent vasoconstrictor, resulting in increased levels of plasma renin and a reduction in aldosterone secretion.

Quinapril (Accupril)

Prevents conversion of A-I to A-II, a potent vasoconstrictor, resulting in increased levels of plasma renin and a reduction in aldosterone secretion.

Captopril (Capoten)

Prevents conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, resulting in lower aldosterone secretion.

Rapidly absorbed, but bioavailability is significantly reduced with food intake. It achieves a peak concentration in an hour and has a short half-life. The drug is cleared by the kidney.

Impaired renal function requires reduction of dosage. Absorbed well PO. Give at least 1 h before meals. If added to water, use within 15 min.

Can be started at low dose and titrated upward as needed and as patient tolerates.

Enalapril (Vasotec)

Prevents conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, resulting in increased levels of plasma renin and a reduction in aldosterone secretion.

Helps control blood pressure and proteinuria. Decreases pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio in the catheterization laboratory and increases systemic blood flow in patients with relatively low pulmonary vascular resistance. Has favorable clinical effect when administered over a long period. Helps prevent potassium loss in distal tubules. Body conserves potassium; thus, less oral potassium supplementation needed.

Lisinopril (Zestril)

Prevents conversion of Angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, resulting in increased levels of plasma renin and a reduction in aldosterone secretion.


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