What is the role of lab testing in the workup of coronary artery atherosclerosis?

Updated: Apr 09, 2021
  • Author: Sandy N Shah, DO, MBA, FACC, FACP, FACOI; Chief Editor: Yasmine S Ali, MD, MSCI, FACC, FACP  more...
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See also the Guidelines section for recommendations.

Routine blood tests include complete blood count (CBC), chemistry panel, lipid profile, and thyroid function tests (to exclude thyroid disorders). Routine measurement of blood glucose and hemoglobin A1Cis appropriate in patients with diabetes mellitus. A study by Paynter et al found that models incorporating HbA1c levels significantly improved prediction of CVD risk among patients with diabetes. [24]

Measuring any number of parameters that may reflect coagulation, fibrinolytic status, and platelet aggregability is possible. These measurements may prove to be valuable, but how these measurements affect clinical decision-making is unclear at this time, and including them in routine clinical practice is premature.

The majority of atherosclerotic lesions responsible for the most serious CAD events (that is, the lesions that are most likely to rupture) are mild stenoses of inconsequential hemodynamic significance and are characterized by an abundance of lipid, numerous inflammatory cells, and a thin, fragile fibrous cap. This suggests that although measurements of coronary flow reserve (CFR) and fractional flow reserve (FFR), both of which are discussed below, may be useful in the assessment of the severity of stenoses and in the identification of lesions responsible for effort angina, they are not likely to identify the more dangerous plaques responsible for unstable angina, AMI, and sudden ischemic death.

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