Which physical findings are characteristic of coronary artery atherosclerosis?

Updated: Apr 09, 2021
  • Author: Sandy N Shah, DO, MBA, FACC, FACP, FACOI; Chief Editor: Yasmine S Ali, MD, MSCI, FACC, FACP  more...
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Tachycardia is common in persons with ACS and AMI. Heart rate irregularity may signal the presence of atrial fibrillation or frequent supraventricular or ventricular ectopic beats. Ventricular tachycardia is the most common cause of death in persons with AMI.

High or low blood pressure may be noted. Hypotension often reflects hemodynamic compromise and is a predictor of poor outcome in the setting of AMI. Diaphoresis is a common finding. Patients often have rapid breathing (ie, tachypnea). Signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure (CHF) may indicate cardiogenic shock or a mechanical complication of AMI, such as ischemic mitral valve regurgitation.

An S4 gallop is a common early finding. The presence of an S3 is an indication of reduced left ventricular function. Heart murmurs, particularly those of mitral regurgitation and ventricular septal defect, may be found after the initial presentation; their presence indicates a grave prognosis. The murmur of aortic insufficiency may signal the presence of aortic dissection as a primary etiology, with or without the complication of AMI. Central obesity is often seen. Patients may develop xanthelasmas, livedo reticularis, or both. Patients may have scarring from CABG or similar surgeries.

The following may also be noted:

  • Shock

  • Syncope

  • Leg edema

  • Pulmonary congestion

  • Rales

  • Diagonal ear crease

  • Short stature

  • Baldness

  • Thoracic hairiness

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