What is the global prevalence of coronary artery atherosclerosis?

Updated: Apr 09, 2021
  • Author: Sandy N Shah, DO, MBA, FACC, FACP, FACOI; Chief Editor: Yasmine S Ali, MD, MSCI, FACC, FACP  more...
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Answer

The international incidence of ACS and AMI, especially in developed countries, is similar to that observed in the United States. Despite consumption of rich foods, inhabitants of France and the Mediterranean region appear to have a lower incidence of CAD. This phenomenon (sometimes called the French paradox) is partly explained by greater use of alcohol, with its possible HDL-raising benefit, and by consumption of the Mediterranean diet, which includes predominant use of monounsaturated fatty acids, such as olive oil or canola oil, as well as omega-3 fatty acids, which are less atherogenic. Eskimos have been found to have a lower prevalence of CAD as a result of consuming fish oils containing omega-3 fatty acids.

The Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition assessed the association between consumption of fried foods and risk of coronary heart disease. They found that among people living in Spain, where olive or sunflower oil is commonly used for frying, the consumption of fried foods was not associated with coronary heart disease or with all-cause mortality. This further suggests that the Mediterranean diet may help lower the risk of CAD. [18]

Findings from the World Health Organization's Monitor Trends in Cardiovascular Diseases (MONICA) project involving 21 countries showed a 4% fall in CAD death rates. Improvement in the case fatality rate accounted for only one third of the decline. However, two thirds of the decline resulted from a reduction in the number of events. These findings strongly suggest that the largest impact on decreasing the global burden of atherosclerosis will come from prevention of events.

The frequency of clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis in Great Britain, west of Scotland in particular, is especially high. The same is true of Scandinavia in general and of Finland in particular. Russia and many of the former states of the Soviet Union have recently experienced an exponential increase in the frequency of coronary heart disease that likely is the result of widespread economic hardship and social upheaval, a high prevalence of cigarette habituation, and a diet high in saturated fats.


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