How is dilated cardiomyopathy staged?

Updated: Mar 02, 2021
  • Author: Vinh Q Nguyen, MD, FACC; Chief Editor: Gyanendra K Sharma, MD, FACC, FASE  more...
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Classic staging of heart failure is based on the New York Heart Association (NYHA) system. It may also be classified by the the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) system, which emphasizes the progressive nature of heart failure, as follows [88] :

  • Stage A (high risk for developing heart failure): hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, family history of cardiomyopathy

  • Stage B (asymptomatic heart failure): previous myocardial infarction, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, asymptomatic valvular disease

  • Stage C (symptomatic heart failure): structural heart disease, dyspnea, fatigue, reduced exercise tolerance

  • Stage D (refractory end-stage heart failure): marked symptoms at rest despite maximal medical therapy, recurrent hospitalizations

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