What are the possible causes of pericarditis in patients with cardiac tamponade?

Updated: Nov 28, 2018
  • Author: Chakri Yarlagadda, MD, FACC, FSCAI, FASNC, CCDS; Chief Editor: Terrence X O'Brien, MD, MS, FACC  more...
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Tamponade can occur as a result of any process that causes pericarditis. Pericarditis can result from the following [3] :

  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection

  • Infection - Viral, bacterial (tuberculosis), fungal

  • Drugs - Hydralazine, procainamide, isoniazid, minoxidil

  • Postcoronary intervention - Ie, coronary dissection and perforation

  • Acupuncture [4]

  • Postcardiac percutaneous procedures - Including mitral valvuloplasty, atrial septal defect (ASD) closure, left atrial appendage occlusion

  • Trauma to the chest

  • Cardiovascular surgery - Postoperative pericarditis [5]

  • Postmyocardial infarction - Free wall ventricular rupture, Dressler syndrome

  • Connective tissue diseases - Systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatomyositis

  • Radiation therapy to the chest, radiofrequency ablation [6]

  • Iatrogenic [7] - After sternal biopsy, transvenous pacemaker lead implantation, pericardiocentesis, or central line insertion

  • Uremia

  • Anticoagulation treatment

  • Idiopathic pericarditis

  • Complication of surgery at the esophagogastric junction - Eg, antireflux surgery

  • Pneumopericardium - Due to mechanical ventilation or gastropericardial fistula

  • Hypothyroidism

  • Still disease

  • Duchenne muscular dystrophy

  • Type A aortic dissection

  • Streptococcus constellatus infection (very rare; only 3 cases in the literature) [8]

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