What is the pathophysiology of typical counterclockwise atrial flutter (AFL)?

Updated: Nov 18, 2019
  • Author: Lawrence Rosenthal, MD, PhD, FACC, FHRS; Chief Editor: Jeffrey N Rottman, MD  more...
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Typical counterclockwise atrial flutter has caudocranial activation (ie, activation counterclockwise around the tricuspid valve annulus when viewed in the left antero-oblique fluoroscopic view) of the atrial septum (see the image below).

Typical counterclockwise atrial flutter. This 3-di Typical counterclockwise atrial flutter. This 3-dimensional electroanatomic map of a tricuspid valve and right atrium shows the activation pattern displayed in color format. Red is early and blue is late, relative to a fixed point in time. Activation travels in counterclockwise direction.

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