Which medications in the drug class Antiarrhythmics, class III are used in the treatment of Atrial Fibrillation?

Updated: Apr 09, 2019
  • Author: Lawrence Rosenthal, MD, PhD, FACC, FHRS; Chief Editor: Jeffrey N Rottman, MD  more...
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Answer

Antiarrhythmics, class III

Currently, the class III antiarrhythmic agents sotalol and dofetilide are FDA approved for use in treating atrial arrhythmias; however, amiodarone is also used widely for maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients with AF. Dofetilide must be initiated in an inpatient setting. Sotalol is also initiated in an inpatient setting.

Amiodarone (Cordarone)

Amiodarone has antiarrhythmic effects that overlap all 4 Vaughn-Williams antiarrhythmic classes. It has a low risk of proarrhythmia, and any proarrhythmic reactions generally are delayed. It is used in patients with structural heart disease. Most clinicians are comfortable with inpatient or outpatient loading with 400 mg PO tid for 1 wk because of low proarrhythmic effect, followed by weekly reductions, with a goal of the lowest dose with desired therapeutic benefit (usual maintenance dose for atrial fibrillation is 200 mg/d). During loading, patients must be monitored for bradyarrhythmias.

Sotalol (Betapace atrial fibrillation)

Sotalol is a class III agent with beta-blocking effects. It is effective in the maintenance of sinus rhythm, even in patients with underlying structural heart disease. Inpatient loading is FDA mandated.

Dofetilide (Tikosyn)

Dofetilide is approved by the FDA for maintenance of sinus rhythm, as well as for the conversion of atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm (approximately 50%) in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation. It has no effect on cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume index, or systemic vascular resistance in patients with ventricular tachycardia, mild to moderate CHF, angina, and either normal or reduced LVEF. It has not shown evidence of any negative inotropic effects.

Ibutilide (Corvert)

Ibutilide is indicated for conversion of recent-onset atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter (3 h to 90 d). It prolongs repolarization by increasing the slow inward sodium current and by blocking the delayed rectifier current with rapid onset.


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