What are the morbidity and mortality risks associated with atrial fibrillation (Afib) (AF)?

Updated: Nov 18, 2019
  • Author: Lawrence Rosenthal, MD, PhD, FACC, FHRS; Chief Editor: Jeffrey N Rottman, MD  more...
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Answer

AF is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, in part due to the risk of thromboembolic disease, particularly stroke, in AF and in part due to its associated risk factors. Studies have shown that individuals in sinus rhythm live longer than individuals with AF. Disruption of normal atrial electromechanical function in AF leads to blood stasis. This, in turn, can lead to development of thrombus, most commonly in the left atrial appendage. Dislodgement or fragmentation of a clot can then lead to embolic phenomena, including stroke.

Development of AF predicts heart failure and is associated with a worse New York Heart Association Heart Failure classification. AF may also worsen heart failure in individuals who are dependent on the atrial component of the cardiac output. Those with hypertensive heart disease and those with valvular heart disease are particularly at high risk for developing heart failure when AF occurs. In addition, AF may cause tachycardia-mediated cardiomyopathy if adequate rate control is not established.

In a systematic review (13 studies) and meta-analysis (10 eligible studies) of death and adverse outcomes in 54,587 patients with AF and concomitant heart failure, investigators reported a significantly higher all-cause mortality in AF patients with reduced ejection fraction compared to those with preserved ejection fraction. [39] However, the rates of stroke and hospitalizations were similar between the groups.

In critically ill patients, new-onset AF is independently associated with in-hospital and post-ICU risk of death. [37]

Findings from the observational multicenter PLECTRUM study that evaluated the thromboembolic risk regarding the type and site of mechanical prosthetic heart valves, as well as the quality of anticoagulation and risk factors associated with thromboembolism, found that there was a low rate of bleeding and thromboembolic events in patients with these valves, even when anticoagulation control was suboptimal. [38] There was no association between the thromboembolic risk and low time in therapeutic range, but the presence of AF and a history of thromboembolism and of mitral prosthesis were independent risk factors for thromboembolism. [38]


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