Which physical findings are characteristic of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD)?

Updated: Oct 16, 2018
  • Author: Hakim Azfar Ali, MD; Chief Editor: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP  more...
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Physical examination findings may be normal in patients with early pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) disease. As the disease progresses, findings attributable to pulmonary hypertension and right-sided heart failure supervene. These findings include jugular venous distention, a right ventricular heave, a loud pulmonic heart sound, pedal edema, and epigastric tenderness. Inspiratory crackles may be heard if pulmonary infiltrates are prominent. [34] Clubbing is an unusual feature, [35] but has been described. Sudden death has also been reported as a presenting feature of PVOD. [36]

PVOD, being a postcapillary process, leads to increased visceral pleural and pulmonary capillary pressures with transudation of fluid into the pleural space resulting in pleural effusions. Pleural effusions are very rare in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. [37]

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