What are the infectious causes of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD)?

Updated: Oct 16, 2018
  • Author: Hakim Azfar Ali, MD; Chief Editor: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP  more...
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Various infections have been reported to be associated with PVOD. These include infections with viruses such as cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and measles virus. [15] One case has been reported with concomitant Toxoplasma infection. A few cases of PVOD in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been reported. [16]

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