What are the most commonly used classification schemas for Burkitt lymphoma/Burkitt-like lymphoma (BL/BLL)?

Updated: Dec 20, 2019
  • Author: Ali H Kanbar, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
  • Print

The three most commonly used classification schemas for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are as follows:

  • National Cancer Institute’s Working Formulation (IWF) [71]

  • Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms (REAL) [72]

  • World Health Organization (WHO) classification [2]

The Working Formulation, originally proposed in 1982, classified and grouped lymphomas by morphology and clinical behavior (ie, low, intermediate, or high grade) with 10 subgroups labeled A to J. [71] In 1994, the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification attempted to apply immunophenotypic and genetic features in identifying distinct clinicopathologic NHL entities. [72]

The World Health Organization (WHO) classification, first introduced in 2001 and updated in 2008 and 2016, further elaborates upon the REAL approach. This classification divides NHL into two groups: those of B-cell origin and those of T-cell/natural killer (NK)–cell origin. [25, 2]

Although considered obsolete, the National Cancer Institute’s Working Formulation (IWF) classification is still used mainly for historical data comparisons. [71]

Did this answer your question?
Additional feedback? (Optional)
Thank you for your feedback!