What is the risk of transfusion-transmitted arbovirus infection? HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection and how is it prevented?

Updated: Jan 15, 2017
  • Author: Mudassar Zia, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD  more...
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Answer

Answer

Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus–1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 have been shown to be transmitted by blood transfusion. The residual risk of transmission is 1 in 3 million in the United States. Infection with these retroviruses may result in HTLV-related myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Various laboratories test for the presence of these agents by different serologic or nucleic acid–based tests, including enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and PCR assay. [52, 53, 54, 55]


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