What is the role of second generation antihistamines in the treatment of acute urticaria (hives)?

Updated: Mar 21, 2018
  • Author: Henry K Wong, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Michael A Kaliner, MD  more...
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Answer

Most patients with urticaria can be treated with oral (PO) H1 antihistamines. Modern second-generation antihistamines are the first choice. Increasing the dose up to fourfold is permitted in patients who do not respond sufficiently to the standard dosing. For refractory cases, use a combination of H1 and H2 antihistamines.

The experimental evidence comparing the various possible regimens and rates of adverse effects in the long term is still minimal.

H1 antagonists (second-generation antihistamines)

The newer second-generation antihistamines are nonsedating in most patients, with very few adverse effects reported (cetirizine can cause drowsiness in up to 10% of patients). [51, 48, 49] Therefore, many specialists prefer the use of these agents for chronic urticaria, with first-generation agents reserved for acute or refractory cases. Commonly used second-generation antihistamines are cetirizine, levocetirizine, desloratadine, loratadine, and fexofenadine. Four times the approved doses can be used if needed in cases where standard dose is insufficient to control the symptom.


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