Which microorganisms are associated with hypogammaglobulinemia?

Updated: Dec 26, 2018
  • Author: Elizabeth A Secord, MD; Chief Editor: Michael A Kaliner, MD  more...
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Answer

Antibody deficiency and complement deficiency are associated with recurrent infections with encapsulated bacteria. These most often involve the respiratory tract, including otitis media, and may lead to bronchiectasis in childhood. Giardia lamblia infection is frequently observed in patients with combined variable immunodeficiency (CVID) or IgA deficiency.

Opportunistic infections with viral, fungal, or protozoan pathogens suggest concomitant T-cell deficiency, although some of these pathogens can occasionally cause infections with CVID and XLA.


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