Which physical findings are characteristic of primary hypogammaglobulinemia?

Updated: Dec 26, 2018
  • Author: Elizabeth A Secord, MD; Chief Editor: Michael A Kaliner, MD  more...
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Answer

Physical findings will vary by etiology, but primary hypogammaglobulinemia (associated with a primary immune deficiency) may include the following:

  • Growth retardation

  • Abnormalities of lymphoid tissue and organs (eg, a paucity of tonsillar tissue, adenoids, and peripheral lymph nodes)

  • Developmental abnormalities (eg, of skeleton or chest wall)

  • Abnormalities of skin and mucous membranes (eg, scars, rash, or livedo reticularis)

  • Ear, nose, and throat abnormalities (eg, tympanic membrane perforation, purulent nasal discharge, cobblestone pattern of pharyngeal mucosa, and nasal exudate)

  • Pulmonary abnormalities suggestive of recurrent infections (eg, bronchiectasis and lung fibrosis with rales, rhonchi, and wheezing)

  • Cardiovascular abnormalities associated with DiGeorge or CHARGE syndrome

Physical exam findings in secondary hypogammaglobulinemia will vary by etiology.

See Clinical Presentation for more detail.


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