What is the effect of vitamin D supplementation on mortality risk in vitamin D deficiency, and what is the association of low vitamin D with COVID-19?

Updated: Dec 15, 2020
  • Author: Vin Tangpricha, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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A meta-analysis evaluated the effect of vitamin D supplementation (using a mean supplementation dosage of about 500 IU daily) on all-cause mortality in 18 randomized controlled trials and found a 7% relative risk reduction for death. [61] Severe vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 10 ng/mL) has been associated with increased in-hospital mortality in patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome. [62]

Low vitamin D in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reflects a heightened inflammatory state and possibly could be used as a surrogate marker for high risk of severe disease. [63]

A retrospective, observational study by De Smet et al indicated that patients with COVID-19 who have vitamin D deficiency at hospital admission have an almost four-fold greater chance of mortality from COVID-19. This increase occurred independently of age, ethnicity, the presence of chronic lung disease, or the degree of lung damage (as determined through chest computed tomography [CT] scan severity score). [64, 65]

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