What is the association between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease (CVD)?

Updated: Dec 15, 2020
  • Author: Vin Tangpricha, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Low levels of vitamin D have also been linked to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers in older adults. In an observational study of 957 hypertensive older adults, vitamin D deficiency (< 25 nmol/L) was associated with higher levels of biomarkers linked with CVD and conditions such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. [58, 59, 60] Individuals deficient in vitamin D had significantly higher levels of the inflammatory biomarkers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), and higher IL-6:IL-10 and CRP:IL-10 ratios compared with subjects who had serum vitamin D levels > 75 nmol/L. [58, 59]

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