How are patients with low HDL cholesterol (hypoalphalipoproteinemia) monitored for premature atherosclerosis?

Updated: May 21, 2021
  • Author: Vibhuti N Singh, MD, MPH, FACC, FSCAI; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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  • Patients with HA need monitoring for the development of premature atherosclerosis. Some procedures that may be useful include the following:

    • Noninvasive cardiac procedures

      • Stress-nuclear testing

      • Rest and stress echocardiography

      • Electron beam computed tomography

      • Cardiac catheterization and coronary angiography

      • Percutaneous coronary interventions

      • Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery

    • Carotid atherosclerosis

      • Carotid Doppler studies

      • Carotid artery angiograms

      • Carotid endarterectomy

    • Peripheral vascular and renal vascular disease

      • Ankle-brachial index

      • Peripheral arterial angiography

      • Percutaneous interventions

      • Peripheral vascular bypass surgery

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