Which insulin dosages are used in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)?

Updated: Apr 29, 2020
  • Author: Thomas R Moore, MD; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Answer

Answer

As pregnancy progresses, the increasing fetal demand for glucose and the progressive lowering of maternal fasting and between-meal blood sugar levels increases the risk of symptomatic hypoglycemia. Upward adjustment of short-acting insulin doses to control postprandial glucose surges within the target band only exacerbates the tendency to interprandial hypoglycemia. Thus, any insulin regimen for pregnant women requires combinations and timing of insulin injections quite different from those that are effective in the nonpregnant state. Further, the regimens must be continuously modified as the pregnancy progresses from the first to the third trimester and insulin resistance rises. Strive to stay ahead of the rising need for insulin, and increase insulin dosages preemptively.

When more than 20% of postprandial blood glucose levels exceed 130 mg/dL, administer lispro insulin (4-8 U subcutaneously [SC] initially) before meals. If more than 10 U of regular insulin is needed before the noon meal, adding 8-12 U of NPH insulin before breakfast helps achieve control. When more than 10% of fasting glucose levels exceed 95 mg/dL, initiate 6-8 U NPH insulin at bedtime (hs). Titrate doses as needed according to blood glucose levels. [75]


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