What is the prognosis of primary aldosteronism?

Updated: Mar 24, 2020
  • Author: Gabriel I Uwaifo, MD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Answer

Evidence exists to show that chronic aldosteronism in and of itself, in the absence of elevated blood pressure (eg, as occurs in secondary aldosteronism), is also associated with increased risk for cardiac injury, including ischemic, hypertrophic, and fibrotic injury. Furthermore, studies have shown that patients with primary aldosteronism are more likely to have or develop left ventricular hypertrophy, stroke, and acute coronary syndromes than are patients with similar degrees of HTN from other causes. [12, 13]

This was supported by a study by Ohno et al, which indicated that the risk of developing cardiovascular disease is higher in individuals with primary aldosteronism than in those with essential HTN. Cardiovascular disease (including stroke, ischemic heart disease, and heart failure) had a prevalence of 9.4% in patients with primary aldosteronism, greater than that in patients with essential HTN. The difference in stroke prevalence between the two groups was particularly large. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in primary aldosteronism were found to include hypokalemia, unilateral primary aldosteronism, and plasma aldosterone levels at or above 125 pg/mL. [14]

Of course, patients with HTN due to primary aldosteronism are also at risk of developing the entire spectrum of complications of chronic HTN, including hypertensive nephropathy and retinopathy.


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