How are type III C2 fractures defined?

Updated: Sep 28, 2020
  • Author: Igor Boyarsky, DO, FACEP, FAAEM; Chief Editor: Jeffrey A Goldstein, MD  more...
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Type III fractures are defined as follows:

  • Type III fractures (9%) demonstrate severe displacement and severe angulation
  • The mechanism of this injury is flexion with concomitant axial compression
  • The resultant injury pattern demonstrates not only bilateral pedicle fractures with C2/C3 disk disruption, but also concomitant unilateral or bilateral C2/C3 facet dislocations
  • Varying degrees of injury occur to the ALL and PLL; this is an unstable fracture
  • Mortality and morbidity are relatively high with this injury; neurologic sequelae are particularly notable

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