How are type II C2 fractures defined?

Updated: Nov 21, 2018
  • Author: Igor Boyarsky, DO, FACEP, FAAEM; Chief Editor: Jeffrey A Goldstein, MD  more...
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Type II fractures are defined as follows:

  • Type II fractures (56%) demonstrate significant displacement and angulation
  • The mechanism of this injury is twofold: hyperextension with concomitant axial loading, followed by flexion with concomitant axial compression
  • The resultant injury pattern is bilateral pedicle fractures with slight disruption of the ALL and significant disruption of the PLL and C2/C3 disk; this injury is considered unstable
  • A wedge compression fracture of C3 is the most common associated injury

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