How are type I C2 fractures defined?

Updated: Nov 21, 2018
  • Author: Igor Boyarsky, DO, FACEP, FAAEM; Chief Editor: Jeffrey A Goldstein, MD  more...
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Answer

Type I fractures are defined as follows:

  • Type I fractures (29%) are bilateral pedicle fractures with less than 3 mm of anterior C2 body displacement and no angulation
  • The mechanism of this injury is hyperextension with concomitant axial loading and a force sufficient enough to cause the fracture but not enough to disrupt the anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL), posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL), nor the C2/C3 disk
  • The integrity of the C2/C3 disk, ALL, and PLL determines the stability of the injury; with these elements intact, the injury is considered stable
  • Commonly associated concomitant injuries are C1 posterior arch fractures, C1 lateral mass fractures, and odontoid fractures

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