How is overall frailty determined in patients with kyphosis?

Updated: May 04, 2020
  • Author: R Carter Cassidy, MD; Chief Editor: Jeffrey A Goldstein, MD  more...
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Estimation of the overall frailty of the patient may predict complications in spine surgery. [33]  A modified frailty index has been developed that can be used to screen patients for risk. This index comprises the following 11 factors:

  • Nonindependent functional status
  • History of diabetes mellitus
  • History of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • History of congestive heart failure (CHF)
  • History of myocardial infarction (MI)
  • History of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), cardiac surgery, or angina
  • Hypertension requiring the use of medication
  • Peripheral vascular disease or rest pain
  • Impaired sensorium
  • Transient ischemic attack (TIA) or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) without residual deficit
  • CVA with deficit 

Modification of risk factors preoperatively may not reduce the overall risk of complications. [34]

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