What are first-line treatment options for all stages of frozen shoulder syndrome (FSS) (adhesive capsulitis)?

Updated: Nov 12, 2020
  • Author: Jefferson R Roberts, MD; Chief Editor: S Ashfaq Hasan, MD  more...
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Physiotherapy and home exercise are first-line treatments for all stages of FSS. [12]  These are often combined with anti-inflammatory medications and glenohumeral joint corticosteroid injection. [51]  Most patients are treated nonoperatively; more than 90% respond to conservative interventions to control pain and restore motion. Invasive options for refractory cases include extracorporeal shockwave therapy, manipulation under anesthesia, hydrodilatation (hydrodistention), and selective arthroscopic capsular release.

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