Which biomarkers found in synovial fluid suggest chronic inflammation in the pathogenesis of frozen shoulder syndrome (FSS) (adhesive capsulitis)?

Updated: Nov 12, 2020
  • Author: Jefferson R Roberts, MD; Chief Editor: S Ashfaq Hasan, MD  more...
  • Print
Answer

Biomarkers in synovial fluid suggest chronic inflammation is present. [32] The following markers have been identified in FSS [33, 34] :

  • Intercellular adhesion molecule–1 (ICAM-1; CD54)
  • Transforming growth factor–beta (TGF-β)
  • Tumor necrosis factor–alpha (TNF-α)
  • Interleukin-1 (IL-1) alpha and beta
  • IL-6
  • Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)

Did this answer your question?
Additional feedback? (Optional)
Thank you for your feedback!