How are primary and secondary frozen shoulder syndrome (FSS) (adhesive capsulitis) differentiated?

Updated: Nov 12, 2020
  • Author: Jefferson R Roberts, MD; Chief Editor: S Ashfaq Hasan, MD  more...
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In contrast to patients with primary FSS, patients with secondary FSS describe an event that preceded the onset of shoulder symptoms, such as the following:

  • Upper extremity trauma (eg, shoulder surgery, rotator cuff tear, proximal humerus facture)
  • Immobilization (eg, cardiothoracic surgery, neurosurgery)
  • Metabolic/endocrine (eg, thyroid disease, diabetes mellitus, autoimmune disease, hyperlipidemia)
  • Neurologic (eg, stroke, Parkinson disease)
  • Cardiac disease (eg, ischemic heart disease, hypertension)
  • Drugs (eg, protease inhibitors, antiretrovirals, immunizations, fluoroquinolones)
  • Malignancy

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