What is the role of growth factors in the etiology of subacute thyroiditis?

Updated: Mar 23, 2021
  • Author: Stephanie L Lee, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Answer

The role of growth factors in the development of subacute thyroiditis has received some attention. In the granulomatous stage of subacute thyroiditis, growth factor–rich monocytes and/or macrophages infiltrating follicular lumina are thought to trigger the granulomatous reaction, with this reaction probably being mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) produced by the stromal cells.

In the regenerative phase, endothelial growth factor (EGF) mediates follicular regeneration through its mitogenic effect on thyrocytes, along with cofactors. In addition, the decreased expression of TGF-β1, a fibrogenic factor, contributes to thyroid tissue repair. VEGF and bFGF may be responsible for angiogenesis in both stages.


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