How is nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy characterized?

Updated: Sep 02, 2021
  • Author: Abdhish R Bhavsar, MD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Mild: Indicated by the presence of at least 1 microaneurysm

Moderate: Includes the presence of hemorrhages, microaneurysms, and hard exudates

Severe (4-2-1): Characterized by hemorrhages and microaneurysms in 4 quadrants, with venous beading in at least 2 quadrants and intraretinal microvascular abnormalities in at least 1 quadrant

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