Which third-order neuron lesions cause Horner syndrome?

Updated: May 01, 2019
  • Author: Christopher M Bardorf, MD, MS; Chief Editor: Edsel Ing, MD, MPH, FRCSC  more...
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Third-order neuron lesions that may give rise to Horner syndrome include the following:

  • Internal carotid artery dissection (associated with sudden ipsilateral face or neck pain) [12]

  • Raeder syndrome (paratrigeminal syndrome) - Oculosympathetic paresis and ipsilateral facial pain with variable involvement of the trigeminal and oculomotor nerves

  • Carotid cavernous fistula

  • Cluster or migraine headache

  • Herpes zoster

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