How is toxoplasma retinochoroiditis in HIV infection diagnosed?

Updated: Jul 21, 2021
  • Author: Luca Rosignoli, MD; Chief Editor: Andrew A Dahl, MD, FACS  more...
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Answer

Answer

In the workup, syphilis, tuberculosis, herpetic retinitis, and toxocariasis should be considered as differential diagnoses.  Positive serology for toxoplasma IgG and IgM, as well as aqueous humor PCR can be used to diagnose this condition.

Although the presence of a characteristic chorioretinal scar can aid in diagnosis, pre-existing scars may be absent. Fluorescein angiogram or OCT-angiogram may be helpful when a choroidal neovascular membrane is suspected. Head imaging is essential to rule out CNS involvement in the immunocompromised patient.


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