What are the anterior segment ocular manifestations of HIV infection?

Updated: Jul 21, 2021
  • Author: Luca Rosignoli, MD; Chief Editor: Andrew A Dahl, MD, FACS  more...
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The concurrent presence of encephalopathy in patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca may cause lagophthalmos and decreased blink rate, increasing the risk for development of neurotrophic keratitis.

Chronic follicular conjunctivitis frequently presents with associated punctate epithelial erosions and/or superficial vascular pannus on the cornea. 

Complications of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) ocular infection include pseudodendritic keratitis (and increased risk for superimposed infectious keratitis), stromal keratitis with subsequent scarring, disciform keratitis, iritis, and trabeculitis with associated intraocular hypertension.

Blepharoconjunctivitis may occur in patients with recurrent ocular HSV infection. Stromal keratitis and uveitis occur in fewer than 10% of patients with primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Other complications of HSV infection include dendritic and geographic epithelial keratitis, nonnecrotizing stromal keratitis, and iridocyclitis.

Fungal keratitis may be complicated by uveitis, endophthalmitis, and/or retinitis. In severe cases, retinal detachment may develop.

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