Which ocular manifestations of HIV infection are most prevalent in developing countries?

Updated: Jun 12, 2019
  • Author: Robert A Copeland, Jr, MD; Chief Editor: Andrew A Dahl, MD, FACS  more...
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Most HIV-infected individuals are in developing countries, particularly, sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. [15, 16, 17, 18] The prevalence of CMV retinitis among these HIV-infected persons in these developing countries is lower than in developed countries.

However, ocular complications of toxoplasmosis and tuberculosis, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, and papillomavirus-associated conjunctival squamous cell tumor are more prevalent in HIV-infected persons in developing countries. The reason for this difference is believed to be related to the frequencies of the causative agents and the poor control of HIV infection in these countries.

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