What causes hordeolum (stye)?

Updated: Nov 19, 2018
  • Author: Michael P Ehrenhaus, MD; Chief Editor: Edsel Ing, MD, MPH, FRCSC  more...
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Hordeola are associated with S aureus infection. [3]

Patients with chronic blepharitis, meibomian gland dysfunction, and ocular rosacea are at greater risk of developing hordeola than the general population. [6]

There are published case reports where multiple recurrent hordeola have been associated with selective immunoglobulin M (IgM) deficiency. [7]

The lipid component of chalazia has been found to have large cholesterol content and is dissimilar to the lipid found in meibomian glands. Studies have reported an association between multiple chalazia and elevated serum cholesterol levels. Some studies have even suggested that elevated serum lipid levels may increase the risk of blockage to oil glands of the eyelids and, therefore, predispose to hordeola and chalazia.

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