What are the possible etiologies of dacryocystitis?

Updated: Oct 08, 2019
  • Author: Grant D Gilliland, MD; Chief Editor: Edsel Ing, MD, MPH, FRCSC  more...
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Answer

The etiology of dacryocystitis includes nasal diseases and the following:

  • Sinusitis (maxillary, ethmoidal)
  • Hypertrophic rhinitis
  • Vasomotor rhinitis
  • Syphilitic rhinitis
  • Rhinitis ozaenosa
  • Adenoids
  • Eczema of nares
  • Purulent rhinitis
  • Nasal trauma
  • Ethmoidal tumor
  • Nasal tumor
  • Atrophic rhinitis sicca
  • Rhinitis fibrinosa
  • Enlarged inferior turbinate
  • Foreign body in the nose
  • Septal deviation
  • Frontal sinus neoplasm
  • Nasal mucosal infection
  • Diphtheria
  • Measles
  • Scarlatina
  • Nasal septal abscess
  • Ethmoidal mucocele
  • Rhinolithiasis
  • Bacterial - Tuberculosis, syphilis, trachoma, Staphylococcus epidermidis (most common), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Pneumococcus, Propionibacterium acnes, Mycobacterium fortuitum
  • Viral - Infectious mononucleosis
  • Fungal - Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger
  • Osteoporosis
  • Lupus
  • Scleroma
  • Plasmoma
  • Leukemic infiltration
  • Trauma - Naso-orbital fractures, LeFort II fractures [8]
  • Postinflammatory stenosis of nasolacrimal duct
  • Graft-versus-host disease
  • Iatrogenic - Caldwell-Luc operation, Lautenschlager-Halle ozena operation, radical maxillectomy, ethmoidectomy, Sturmann-Canfield operation, postpunctal occlusion
  • Lacrimal sac tumor - Lymphoma, fibroepithelioma, transitional cell carcinoma, lymphoblastoma, neurilemoma, angiosarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, pseudotumor, melanoma, metastatic carcinomas, benign polyps
  • Lacrimal sac cyst
  • Postirradiation fibrosis
  • Wegener granulomatosis
  • Facial skeletal anomalies
  • Dacryolithiasis
  • Cilia impaction in lacrimal sac
  • IgG4 sclerosing dacryocystitis [9]
  • Impacted punctal plugs - Studies have documented an increased risk of canaliculitis and dacryocystitis associated with intracanalicular punctal plugs. [10]
  • Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting (EEC) syndrome

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