How are drugs stratified as etiologic agents of gynecomastia?

Updated: Mar 22, 2018
  • Author: George Ansstas, MD; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Drugs can also be stratified depending on the evidence that supports their association with gynecomastia, as follows:

  • Probable - Estrogenlike or estrogen receptor binders, verapamil with relative risk (RR) of 9.7, spironolactone (RR of 9.3), cimetidine (RR of 7.2), finasteride, and ketoconazole

  • Possible - Digoxin (RR of 2.7), nifedipine (RR of 2.9), cytotoxic agents, and marijuana

  • Uncertain (reported but could be coincidental) - Nitrates, alfa-blockers, and diazepam

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