What are the characteristics of increased estrogen production resulting in gynecomastia?

Updated: Mar 22, 2018
  • Author: George Ansstas, MD; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Increased estrogen production and/or action can occur at the testicular level or at the periphery and is characterized as follows:

  • From the testes - Can be due to testicular tumors or to ectopic production of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), as is reported with carcinoma of lung, kidney, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and extragonadal germ cell tumors

  • From peripheral conversion - Can be due to increased substrate or increased activity of aromatase, as in chronic liver disease, malnutrition, hyperthyroidism, adrenal tumors, and familial gynecomastia

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