What is the role of imaging studies in the evaluation of gynecomastia?

Updated: Mar 22, 2018
  • Author: George Ansstas, MD; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Imaging studies that may be helpful include the following:

  • Mammography: Indicated if one or more features of breast cancer are apparent upon clinical examination, [1] followed by fine-needle aspiration or breast biopsy as appropriate [2, 3]

  • Testicular ultrasonography: Indicated if the serum estradiol level is elevated and the clinical examination findings suggest the possibility of a testicular neoplasm

  • Breast ultrasonography (though the positive predictive value of imaging in males is low [4] )

  • CT: Gynecomastia is often reported on CT scans

See Workup for more detail.

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