Which novel treatments are under investigation for Graves ophthalmopathy?

Updated: Apr 17, 2020
  • Author: Sai-Ching Jim Yeung, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Novel treatments such as somatostatin analogs or intravenous immunoglobulins are under evaluation. Studies with octreotide LAR (long-acting, repeatable) show conflicting or marginal therapeutic benefit for patients with Graves ophthalmopathy. [65, 66, 67] Infliximab, an anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) antibody, has been reported to successfully treat a case of sight-threatening Graves ophthalmopathy. [68] Rituximab, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, may transiently deplete B-lymphocytes and potentially suppress the active inflammatory phase of Graves ophthalmopathy. [69] However, clinical data concerning rituximab are still conflicting and controversial. [70, 71] A multicentered prospective pilot study suggests that periocular injection of triamcinolone may reduce diplopia and the size of extraocular muscles in patients with Graves ophthalmopathy of recent onset. [72] In a prospective randomized trial, pentoxifylline improved symptoms and proptosis in the inactive phase of Graves ophthalmopathy. [73]

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