What are the clinical phases of Graves ophthalmopathy?

Updated: Apr 17, 2020
  • Author: Sai-Ching Jim Yeung, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Graves ophthalmopathy can be divided into 2 clinical phases: the inflammatory stage and the fibrotic stage. The inflammatory stage is marked by edema and deposition of glycosaminoglycan in the extraocular muscles. This results in the clinical manifestations of orbital swelling, stare, diplopia, periorbital edema, and, at times, pain. The fibrotic stage is a convalescent phase and may result in further diplopia and lid retraction. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) levels may be mechanistically involved in Graves ophthalmopathy. Serum VEGF and b-FGF levels were higher in patients with Graves ophthalmopathy than in patients without, and they correlated with ophthalmopathy clinical activity scores. [51]

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